The Intricacies of Building Structures | Definition, Types, and Components

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building structure

Planning to build a building? You should know the intricacies of building structures. This is important, because the structure of the building serves as a condition for the establishment of a construction.

Especially if you want to build a building that has a large number of floors, such as high-rise buildings, offices, and other high-rise buildings.

A careful plan is needed, and meets the criteria for the structure of strength, comfort, safety, and the age plan of the building, so that the building stands strong for a long time.

However, for those of you who only want to build a landed house, it does not mean that these criteria do not need to be met, it is also important for you to know about the intricacies of the building structure.

So that you don’t make mistakes in the construction process, take a good look at the description below.

building foundation definition

Literally, the building structure can be interpreted as the parts that make up the establishment of a building, starting from the foundation, sloof, walls, columns, rings, horses, to the roof.

The main function of the building structure is actually to support the existence of other construction elements, such as the appearance, interior, and architecture of the building, to form a unity.

Therefore, even though they have the same purpose, the elements contained in the building structure have their respective functions and uses.

Keep in mind, building a construction structure should not be done arbitrarily, the planning for the construction of a structure should refer to several provisions, namely:

  • Standard Procedure for Calculating Concrete Structure No: SK SNI T-15-1991-03;
  • 1983 Indonesian Loading Regulations for Buildings; and
  • Indonesian Earthquake Resistant Planning Regulations for Buildings 1983.

Types of Building Structures

In general, the building structure itself consists of two types, namely the lower structure and the upper structure .

In addition to dividing it into two types, there are also people who divide the building structure into three types, including the lower structure, the upper structure, and the middle structure.

Substructures are parts of the building that are located below the ground surface, for example, such as foundations, sloof, and others.

While the upper structure, serves as a support for the roof and extends upward. Examples of these structures are foundations, frames, and trusses.

Unlike the middle structure, the middle structure itself is located between the ground and the roof, such as walls, columns, and rings. So which statement is true, two types or three types?

Both are not wrong, it’s just that one is grouped into three types, while the other is only two. Moreover, both also have the same components. For more details, see the following information.

Building Structural Components

1. Column

Columns can be said to be a component that is quite important for the resilience of a building. The reason is, if the column in the building collapses, then all the components contained in the building also collapse.

The structure of the building on the column itself is made of iron and concrete. These two materials allow columns or other structural parts, such as sloof and beams to be able to withstand the compressive and tensile forces of the building.

2. Beam

Not inferior to the column, the function of the beam in the building structure is also quite crucial, namely as a horizontal reinforcing frame. Beams are used as floor mounts and as fasteners for upper floor columns.

3. Stairs

As we all know, stairs are a structural component of a house that is useful for connecting the floor of one room to the floor above it.

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There are several types of stairs, such as stairs that stretch horizontally, stairs that stretch lengthwise, cantilever stairs that are stacked by the middle beam, spiral stairs, and floating stairs.

4. Plate

Floor slabs and ordinary floors are two different things, floor slabs are not located above the ground directly, or can be said to be level floors.

Usually, the floor slab is supported by beams that rest on the columns of the building structure. Floor plate materials also vary, ranging from wood, concrete, to cement wood (yumen).

5. Roof

The roof is the most important component that a building must have, especially if the building is intended as a place to live, the roof will protect us from the sun and rain.

In general, the material used to support the roof truss is wooden or steel beams. This material is then arranged to form a triangle and is referred to as the horse.

6. Sawhorse

Yes, the horses themselves act as the main support for the roof structure. The horses are generally made of wood (12 meters), bamboo (10 meters), steel (75 meters), and reinforced concrete (10-12 meters).

7. Foundation

When it comes to building structures, it doesn’t seem right if we don’t talk about building foundations. In general, the foundation is defined as the part of the building that is in direct contact with the ground.

Thus, the function of the foundation itself can be said to be a load-bearing part of the other buildings on it. In addition, the foundation is also made resistant to wind pressure, earthquakes, and others.

8. Soil excavation

The implementation of excavation is entirely the responsibility of the contractor. Here, the current contractor pays attention to the foundation excavation holes so that they are free from soil avalanches.

In addition, soil excavation must also pay attention to the size of the depth, width, and in accordance with the details listed on the drawing.

9. Basement Structure

In the building structure, the basement is used as a way to overcome land limitations. Some things that must be considered in carrying out basement excavations are the load and excavation method.

The excavation method for the basement structure itself is divided into several types, such as open cut, cantilever, armature, and strut.

Well, those were some of the structural components of the building that you need to know when constructing a building. Some structures may not be on the list.

This is due to the large number of building structural components that we need in the construction process. However, the components above are important components that are usually present in a building.


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