Definition of Social Change – Humans are social beings whose lives cannot be separated from other humans. As social beings, humans certainly interact with each other through various communication languages. It then becomes a factor of social change that occurs in society.
Most people living in this world certainly want changes for both themselves and their community groups. This then makes people continue to think, move, and act in order to change in terms of social, economic, and even politics. Especially in the social field, humans tend to be easy to change, both due to external and internal influences.
The following is a complete explanation of the social change. Starting from the definition of social change in general, the definition of social change according to experts, the theory of social change, the driving factors of social change, the inhibiting factors of social change, the characteristics of social change, the impact of social change, forms of social change, etc.
- DEFINITION OF SOCIAL CHANGE IN GENERAL
- DEFINITION OF SOCIAL CHANGE ACCORDING TO EXPERTS
- SOCIAL CHANGE THEORY
- FACTORS DRIVING SOCIAL CHANGE
- FACTORS INHIBITING SOCIAL CHANGE
- CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL CHANGE
- IMPACT OF SOCIAL CHANGE
- FORMS OF SOCIAL CHANGE
DEFINITION OF SOCIAL CHANGE IN GENERAL
In general, social change can be interpreted as changes that occur in society related to norms, values, and various patterns of human life. Basically, every human being experiences changes, whether intentional or not, both from the outside and within the human being himself.
Changes between one human being and society are different. This is because each community group or individual has different abilities and thoughts.
There are times when the change happens quickly and there are times when it happens quite slowly. So, we cannot equate community groups or individuals with one another.
DEFINITION OF SOCIAL CHANGE ACCORDING TO EXPERTS
In fact, there are many definitions of social change. Many experts put forward the notion of social change that occurs in society. Even so, the meaning of change put forward by several experts has the same essence.
The following is the definition of social change according to various experts:
1. KARL MARX
Social change is the changes that occur because of technological developments or the productive forces of society and the changing relations between social classes.
Given that Karl Marx was the originator of the theory of capitalism, he linked social change with social classes and economic activity.
2. SELO SOEMARDJAN
Social change is all changes that occur in various community institutions in an environment including in terms of social values, attitudes, and patterns of behavior between groups in society. So, according to Selo Soemardjan, the scope of social change is quite broad and comprehensive.
3. EMILE DURKHEIM
Social change can occur as a result of ecological and demographic factors, which can change people’s lives from traditional conditions which are still very strong with values of mechanical solidarity into conditions of modern society which are thick with values of organic solidarity.
Social change is defined as a change that occurs as a variation of an accepted way of life due to changes in geographic conditions, material culture, population composition, ideology, or through diffusion or new meetings in society.
5. MAC IVER
He said that social change is changing that occur in social relations or changes to the balance of social relations.
He said that social change is all changes that occur in community institutions which can then affect a social system.
7. KINGSLEY DAVIS
Social change is a change that occurs in the structure and function of a society.
8. SAMUEL KOENIG
Social change is a modification of the pattern of people’s lives.
9. WILLIAM F. OGBURN
Social change as a culture that includes both material and non-material cultural elements which emphasizes the great influence of material cultural elements on non-material elements.
SOCIAL CHANGE THEORY
A social change can occur because of a modification in the order of a society under certain conditions. A condition that can cause social change can be seen based on existing theories of social change. Here are some theories about social change:
1. EVOLUTION THEORY
This theory of evolution is actually still based on Darwin’s theory of evolution and is influenced by the thoughts of Herbert Spencer. In terms of social change, the theory of evolution has two influential thinkers, namely Emile Durkheim and Ferdinand Tonnies.
According to Emile Durkheim, change occurs because of evolution that affects the organization of society, especially in terms of establishing work relationships.
Meanwhile, according to Ferdinand Tonnies, social change occurs from a society that tends to be simple to a larger society based on specialized and impersonal relationships.
In general, the theory of evolution says that social change has a fixed direction and is experienced by every society. Based on this evolutionary theory, social change occurs slowly and gradually from start to finish, meaning that it goes through a long process.
2. FUNCTIONALIST THEORY
A functional theorist’s figure is William Ogburn, who said that although the elements of society are related to one another, the speed of change is not the same.
The functional theory explains that social change occurs only by taking good elements, which are useful and profitable for the social life of a society.
Not all elements of social change provide benefits and advantages for people’s lives because some of them even disrupt the social order.
3. CONFLICT THEORY
Conflict theory is influenced by the thoughts of Karl Marx and Ralf Dahrendord. According to Karl Marx, social conflict is a factor in the occurrence of social change which is the most important source. Meanwhile, according to Ralf Dahrendord, every social change that occurs is the result of social class conflict in a society.
Thus, social change can be in the form of conflict. Conflict occurs because there is a class conflict between the upper class or the ruling class and the lower class or oppressed group which can then affect social change.
4. CYCLICAL OR CYCLE THEORY
Influenced figures in this cyclical theory were Arnold Toynbee and Oswald Spengler. According to Arnold Toynbee, social changes that occur in society, both good and bad, can be explained by societal concepts that relate to one another, namely challenges and responses.
Meanwhile, according to Oswald Spengler, social change occurs as the development of society which goes through four stages, just as humans go through the stages of childhood, youth, adulthood, and old age.
FACTORS DRIVING SOCIAL CHANGE
In general, there are two things that affect social change, namely external and internal factors. External factors are factors that come from outside groups of people or individuals. Meanwhile, internal factors are factors that come from within the community or individual self.
1. EXTERNAL FACTORS
Among the external factors that affect social change is war. A community group or area where war occurs will change the social order within that community. The war that occurs will destroy a lot of physical and non-physical in a society.
In addition, there are also natural disasters that affect social change. Natural disasters can directly damage the physical environment of the community, even non-physically, such as the mentality of the community. This then causes a society to become traumatized and must repair the physical and social order again.
A foreign culture that enters the environment of society will affect social change. Intentionally or unknowingly and consciously or not, society often absorbs foreign cultures, especially in an open society.
The development of technology that is so sophisticated and fast information also makes social changes that occur in society occur very quickly.
This is because people tend to always want updates and exist in the midst of technological and information developments. So, it can no longer be denied by society now.
2. INTERNAL FACTORS
There are several internal factors that affect social change in society, including an advanced education system. Advanced and increasingly quality education means that more and more people have a guaranteed quality of life. They can improve their standard of living after taking a fairly high education.
Tolerance can encourage social change because someone who has this attitude tends to be open and respect each other. Tolerance towards foreign culture makes it easier for people to accept it so that it can affect the social environment of society.
The orientation of life towards the future is the driving force for social change. Community groups or individuals certainly have a good life orientation. Therefore they try hard both through education and the economy to achieve this orientation.
The condition of a pluralistic society makes it a community group easy to experience social change. The diversity of these communities touches each other so that it will produce a new order from the results of a mixture of pluralistic social cultures.
FACTORS INHIBITING SOCIAL CHANGE
In this world, there are still some people who find it difficult to experience social change due to several reasons. Among the inhibiting factors for social change are strong customs or habits.
A society that still adheres to the prevailing customs tends to be difficult to experience social change. Then coupled with prejudice against foreign cultures. So, they prefer to reject foreign cultures that try to enter the community.
Likewise, people who are still traditional are very difficult to change. Considering they are quite far from the development of technology and information. Traditional community life is very thick with old habits and not enough to know about developments in the outside world.
Meanwhile, a strong ideology in a society hinders social change. Groups or individuals who adhere to an ideology tend to think narrowly.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL CHANGE
A social change can be said to be social change if it has certain characteristics, including:
Basically, social change is continuously happening and developing. Every society always experiences changes either sooner or later.
2. DONE ON PURPOSE
Social changes that occur in society are carried out deliberately. This intention is either planned or not. As with a mobile phone creator originally intended to facilitate communication.
The result then makes many people literate in technology and communication. In fact, it can result in direct socialization between people that is not carried out properly.
3. IS IMITATIVE
Every community group that lives side by side influences one another. Intentionally or not, this will make a group of people imitate things that are beneficial and beneficial to a group. Examples include home design styles and dress styles.
4. OFTEN CAUSING CONTROVERSY
Some forms of social change cause controversy for some people. Like the existence of machine technology that makes all jobs easy and cheap for a company. This is certainly detrimental to workers or laborers, causing controversy and protests.
5. TEMPORARY DISORGANIZATION
Social changes that occur quickly will lead to disorganization. Disorganization itself is a state of chaos caused by the adaptation of several social elements that prevail in a society.
Then the disorganization is usually followed by reorganization in such a way as to achieve a good and orderly social order.
6. HAPPENS EVERYWHERE
Basically, social change can occur anywhere, both in traditional and modern societies. It’s just that what makes the difference is the speed at which change occurs, just as modern society tends to experience social change more easily and quickly.
On the other hand, traditional communities tend to be slow because they still adhere to their customs and life in areas far from the crowds.
IMPACT OF SOCIAL CHANGE
Social change that occurs in a society has its own impact on the social order in the community. In general, there are two impacts of social change, namely positive and negative impacts.
1. POSITIVE IMPACT
One of the positive impacts that will be felt is an increase in the level of education such as science and technology.
2. NEGATIVE IMPACT
In short, the negative impact can be in the form of changes in customs in one tribe/nation so that the national identity itself will gradually disappear.
FORMS OF SOCIAL CHANGE
There are many forms of social change that occur in society. This is because every society has different characteristics. Likewise, the social status in society is also different. The following are forms of social change:
1. STRUCTURAL CHANGE
Structural change is a fundamental social change that creates a major influence on society. These structural changes usually occur from top to bottom because they are quite strong.
As with changes in the system of government from monarchy to democracy, which requires the elements of government to change as well.
2. BIG AND SMALL CHANGES
Big changes are changes that involve many things and have a big impact on society. For example, there is industrialization which is able to change the social, cultural, and economic society from an agrarian society to an industrial society.
Meanwhile, minor changes are changes that only concern minor issues and cause little influence in society. As is the case with changes in house design and clothing styles that are only visible from the outside and do not affect much of the social order, especially for basic matters.
3. FAST AND SLOW CHANGES
Rapid change is a social change whose process is so fast or often called a revolution. This rapid change can occur because it is planned or unplanned. Usually, these changes originate from conflicts and tensions that occur between groups of people.
Meanwhile, slow change is a social change that takes a long time to go through certain stages. It could be that this change started with small changes slowly and continuously. These changes can occur without any plan or intention of the parties concerned.
4. DESIRED AND UNWANTED CHANGES
The desired change is a social change that occurs with prior plans and estimates by the parties concerned in society. Those who prepare for social change are called agents of change, both from within a community group or from outside individuals.
Meanwhile, unwanted changes are social changes that occur without prior forecasting and planning by the parties involved.
Changes of this kind usually cause things that are not wanted by the community because they occur outside the reach so the parties concerned also do not prepare for anticipation.
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